Canadian Forest Service Publications
Deposition in boreal forests in relation to type, size, number and placement of collectors. 2007. Starr, M.; Ukonmaanaho, L.; Sibley, P.K.; Hazlett, P.W.; Gordon, A.M. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 125: 123-136.
Available from: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 28156
Open precipitation and throughfall was collected at a Norway spruce stand in Finland using funnel-type collectors and at a black spruce stand in Canada using trough-type collectors. The presence or absence of a rim on the funnel, funnel diameter (9, 14 and 20 cm) and length of sampling period (1, 2 and 4 weeks) on monthly values were evaluated at the Norway spruce stand, and the number of collectors required for defined levels of accuracy and precision of throughfall loads to be reached and the influence of the spatial arrangement of collectors on solute concentrations was studied at both stands. The presence of a rim had no significant effect on open precipitation and throughfall amounts, but did on throughfall DOC, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+ and Cl- ion loads. Deposition loads increased with decreasing funnel diameter; for open precipitation, this was due to increased catch efficiency while for throughfall the increase was attributed to canopy interaction and leaching of litter trapped in the collectors. Calculated monthly H+ loads decreased and those for all other constituents increased with collection period length. Using 15 collectors at the Norway spruce stand would allow throughfall loads to be determined to within 20% of the true mean weekly value with a confidence level of 95% for most solute, but not for NH4 +–N, NO3 -–N, Mg2+ and SO4 2--S. Using 15 trough collectors, the same confidence level at the more heterogeneous black spruce stand would only be achieved for H+, Cl-, DOC and SO4 2--S loads. In both stands, using either random or systematic placements of throughfall collectors gave similar results.