Glossary

Filter by category

Biodiversity

Term Definition French
Acari (Acarian) Order included in the class Arachnida. The members of this order (mites and ticks) are very tiny organisms with an unsegmented abdomen and generally four pairs of unjointed legs. Acarien
Accessory species A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree. Essences auxiliaires
Afforestation The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. Boisement
All-aged Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. De tous âges
Arboretum A place where many kinds of trees and shrubs are grown for scientific and educational purposes. Arboretum
Arthropoda Phylum of invertebrate animals that possess an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages (legs). Arthropods include crustaceans, spiders and insects. Arthropodes
Avifauna Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc. Avifaune
Bacteria Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium. Bactérie
Band application Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area. Pulvérisation en bandes
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biosphere The portion of the earth comprising the lower atmosphere, the seas, and the land surface (mantle rock) in which living organisms exist. Biosphère
Biotechnology As defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. It refers to the techniques through which organisms such as plants, fungi, or microorganisms can be used to provide products or services. Biotechnologie
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers. Forêt boréale
Buffer strip A band of forest left relatively undisturbed so as to protect some element of the environment, such as a streambank from erosion. Rideau vert
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chromosome A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. Chromosome
Class Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta Classe
Climate change adaptation An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli. Adaptation au changement climatique
Climate change mitigation Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change. Atténuation du changement climatique
Coarse woody debris The standing and downed dead wood in a forest. Débris ligneux grossier
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Compatible management The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources. Aménagement compatible
Compensatory planting Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere. Reboisement de compensation
Competitive exclusion In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other. Exclusion compétitive
Cone rake A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device. Cueilleur de cônes
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Crepuscular Pertaining to organisms that are active during the dim light of dusk or dawn. Crépusculaire
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Cryopreservation The preservation of living materials at very low temperatures, often within liquid nitrogen, to protect them against damage. Cryopréservation
Cultivar A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture. Cultivars
Deadwood Timber produced from dead standing trees. More commonly, timber in dead standing trees. Bois mort
Deciduous forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness. Forêt décidue
Deciduous species Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally. Espèce arborescente décidue
Decomposers Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals. Décomposeurs
Detritivorous Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter. Détritivore
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Dominance potential The relative ability of a tree or plant species to dominate a forest ecosystem, given an opportunity equal to that of its associates. Potentiel de dominance
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Edge habitat A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. Habitat de lisière
Endangered species Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels. Espèce en voie de disparition
Entomology Part of zoology concerned with the study of insects. Entomologie
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Environmental goods and services Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few. Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
Eugenic Favorable to the genetic quality of a population. cf. dysgenic. Eugénique
Eutrophication The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters. Eutrophisation
Exotic An introduced, non-native tree species. Exotique
Extirpated species Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world. Espèce disparue
Fauna A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Faune
Featured-species management A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. Gestion axée sur les espèces
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Filler A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better. Remplissage (arbre de)
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forest regions classification A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition. Classification des régions forestières
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forest site see forest site type Site forestier
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forest type A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. Type forestier
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
Full-sibs Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known. Pleins germains
Fungicide Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores. Fongicide
Fungicide Substance used to kill fungi. Fongicide
Fungicides Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases. Fongicides
Fungivorous Feeding on fungi. Fongivore
Gene A functional portion of a chromosome in which inheritable characteristics are determined by the sequence of nucleotides along the DNA. Gène
Gene bank An ex situ conservation facility that stores plant germplasm of various species in the form of pollen, seeds, or tissue culture. Also refers to a database of publicly available DNA sequences. Banque de gènes
Gene expression The multi-step process in which the coded information in a gene is converted into functional products. Expression génétique
Gene flow The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals. Flux génique
Genetic diversity The genetic variation present in a population or species. Diversité génétique
Genotype An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics. Génotype
Geophilous Living in or on the ground. Géophile
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Habitat The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. Habitat
Hard snag A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable. Chicot dur
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
Heritability That portion of the character variance due to hereditary factors as distinct from factors of environment. Heritability is described in one of two ways, depending on the type of investigation. Héritabilité
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
High grading A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand. Écrémage
Humicolous Living in or on humus or leaf litter. Humicole
Humus A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded. Humus
Hybrid The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species). Hybride
Hybrid Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants. Hybride
Hybridization Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species. Hybridation
Hyperparasite Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite. Hyperparasite
Hyperparasitoid Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid. Hyperparasitoïde
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
Lichen An algae and a fungus growing in symbiotic association on solid surfaces such as rocks or tree bark. Lichen
Lichen Organism consisting of a fungus (mycellium) and an alga (green alga cells) living in association. Lichens have a high tolerance for cold, drought and heat. They should not be confused with mosses, which are chlorophyll-containing plants. Lichens
Lignicolous Growing in or on wood. Lignicole
Lignin Main component of wood. Lignine
Liquid alcohols Also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol. It is formed in the destructive distillation of wood or made synthetically, and used especially as an alternative fuel, a gasoline additive, a solvent, an antifreeze, or a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. Alcools liquides
Litter Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor. Litière
Lop and top The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen. Résidus d’ébranchage-façonnage
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Mammal Four-legged vertebrate of the class Mammalia, characterized by females that produce milk with which to feed their young. Mammifère
Merchantable snag A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Chicot marchand
Micro-organism A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan. Micro-organisme
Micro-organisms Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens. Micro-organismes
Microbe See microorganism. Microbe
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Microorganism A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Microorganisme
Microsite The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment. Niche (écologique)
Mist forest A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands. Forêt de brouillard
Mixed forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is dominated by mixed forests encompassing both coniferous boreal species and more southerly deciduous species. Forêt mélangée
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Modern biotechnology In vitro techniques that are rapid, efficient, and precise in obtaining novel gene combinations in living organisms. Most modern biotechnologies focus on organisms at the genetic level. (See also traditional biotechnology.) Biotechnologie moderne
Monoculture 1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes. 2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically. Monoculture
Monophagous Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal. Monophage
Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests. Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mushroom Visible reproductive part of any of various fungi. Champignon de sol
Mutagens Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light. Mutagènes
Mutation A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced. Mutation
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Native (indigenous) A species that occurs naturally in an area. Indigène
New forestry A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands. Nouvelle foresterie
Niche environment The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species. Niche écologique
Non-timber forest products Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
Nurse log A dead or downed log that fosters tree seedlings by protecting them from such environmental factors as wind, insolation, or frost, or by providing appropriate soil and microclimate. Grume-abri
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Nutrients Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots. Nutriments
Old-growth forest An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community. Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
Open forest Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests. Forêts claires
Overmature In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage. Suranné
Particle gun transformation See biolistics. Transformation par canon à particules
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pioneer species Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species. Espèce pionnière
Pioneer species A species adapted to early stages of natural forest succession or growth on newly available sites. Essences transitoires
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Plus tree A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities. Arbre plus
Pocket of infection Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated. Foyers d'infection
Polyculture The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species. Polyculture
Polyphagous Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees. Polyphage
Principal species The species to which the silviculture of a mixed forest is primarily directed, either for its (or their) economic or protective value. Essences principales
Progeny The offspring of a particular tree or a combination of one female and one male tree. Descendance
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protozoa Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent. Protozoaire
Provenance 1. The geographical area and environment to which the parent trees, etc., are native and within which their genetic constitution has been developed through natural selection. 2. The geographical source, i.e., place of origin. Provenance
Race A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. Race
Rainforest Forest that occurs in an area of high rainfall. Rainforests are usually found near the sea or in mountainous regions that receive a great deal of rain. Tropical forests are generally rainforests. Forêt pluviale
Reforestation syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding. Création de forêt
Regeneration survey An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area. Relevé de la régénération
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Riparian forest At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community. Forêt riveraine
Riparian zone A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water. Zone riveraine
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary species A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species. cf. accessory species Essences secondaires
Sedge Herbaceous plants that have narrow leaves with sharp edges, flowers that are grouped into spikes and fruit (achenes) enclosed in small sacs. Sedges grow in tufts at the water’s edge and in wetlands. Carex
Seed bank A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability. Banque de semences
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Seed source The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc. Origine des graines
Seed tree A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration. Semencier
Selection Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation. Sélection
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Selection pressure Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction. Pression sélective
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Shade system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops. Système de production sous couvert forestier
Shelterbelt A strip of living trees and/or shrubs maintained mainly to provide shelter for open land from wind, desiccation, snow-drift, etc. Rideau-abri
Silvics The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. Écologie forestière
Silvipasture An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together. Système sylvopastoral
Silvopasture An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits. Sylvopastoralisme
Site A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. Site
Slash The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems. Rémanents
Snag A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen. Chicot
Soft snag A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion. Chicot pourri
Somatic embryogenesis A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo. Embryogenèse somatique
Species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Espèce
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Storied high forest A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer. Futaie pluriétagée
Stratification The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination. Stratification
Structure The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). Structure
Stub The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem. Chicot
Substantial equivalence A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health. Équivalence en substance
Sun system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.) Système de production à découvert
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Symbiotic association The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial. Association symbiotique
Taxonomy Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species. Taxinomie
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Threatened species A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed. Espèce menacée
Tissue culture A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions. Culture de tissus
Trait A distinguishable characteristic of an organism. Caractère
Transformation Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria. Transformation
Tropical forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, temperate forest). A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of a least 250 cm; marked by broad-leaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy. Forêt tropicale
Understorey The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs. Sous-étage
Undesirable species Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives. Essences indésirables
Uneven-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years. Inéquienne
Urban forest The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas. Forêt urbaine
Variable-retention A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat. Rétention variable
Variety Specifically within forestry, any clone or product of breeding given a separate name. Variété
Variety Subdivision of species, a group of individuals that have common characteristics (example : The different varieties of apples). Variété
Vertical structure The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest. Structure verticale
veteran A tree that has escaped logging, windthrow, or fire, and occupies a dominant position in the stand. vétéran
Virgin forest Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity. Forêt vierge
Viviparous Bringing forth living, fully formed individuals that are capable of feeding. Said of producing bulbils on young plants, instead of and in place of flowers. Vivipare
Vulnerable species A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors. Espèce vulnérable
Woody debris Dead and decomposing wood of various sizes. Débris ligneux
Xylophagous Feeding on woody tissues (wood). Xylophage
Xylophilous Growing in or living on wood. Xylophile